Silver-Doped Calcium Phosphate Bone Cements with Antibacterial PropertiesE. Baranchikov*
Calcium phosphate bone cements (CPCs) with antibacterial houses are demanded for scientific applications. In this study, we established the usage of a noticeably easy processing route primarily based totally on coaching of silver-doped CPCs (CPCs-Ag) thru the coaching of strong dispersed lively powder segment. Real-time tracking of structural differences and kinetics of several CPCs-Ag formulations (Ag = zero wt %, zero.6 wt % and 1.zero wt %) turned into achieved through the Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction technique. The partial conversion of βtricalcium phosphate (TCP) segment into the dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) befell in all of the investigated cement systems. In the pristine cement powders, Ag in its steel shape turned into found, while for CPC-Ag zero.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.zero wt, CaAg(PO3)three turned into detected and Ag (met.) turned into now not present. The CPC-Ag zero wt exhibited a compressive power of 6.5 ? 1.zero MPa, while for the doped cements (CPC-Ag zero.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.zero wt %) the decreased values of the compressive power 4.zero ? 1.zero and 1.5 ? 1.zero MPa, respectively, have been detected. Silver-ion launch from CPC-Ag zero.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.zero wt, measured through the Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, corresponds to the common values of 25 µg/L and forty three µg/L, respectively, growing a plateau after 15 days. The effects of the antibacterial take a look at proved the inhibitory impact closer to pathogenic Escherichia coli for each CPC-Ag zero.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.zero wt, higher performances being located for the cement with a better Ag-content.
bone cement; calcium phosphate; tricalcium phosphate..
Bacterial infections related to the advent of substances into the broken part and/or bone defects cause inflammations, in the end ensuing in bone loss . As a consequence, an boom of the fee remedy because of the extra surgical operation is needed for the rehabilitation and prolonged recuperation of patients . The use of antibiotics withinside the bone graft or oral programs before surgical operation does now no longer offer enough protection. In fact, the incorrect antibiotics or low doses can create resistant lines of bacteria, which might be hard to deal with afterwards. The bone graft related infections can be avoided with the aid of using doping of artificial bone grafting substances with appropriate steel ions (e.g., Ag+ ) at low (non-cytotoxic) concentrations . This way appears to be extra appropriate, due to the fact the antimicrobial interest can be furnished without delay at the implantation site (goal delivery). The results of Ag+ on microorganisms are widely known and reported elsewhere. In this study, we confirmed using a particularly easy processing course primarily based totally on instruction of silver-doped CPCs (CPCs-Ag) thru the instruction of Ag-containing strong dispersed active phase. Further, the real-time tracking of structural changes and kinetics of numerous CPCs-Ag formulations primarily based totally on β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) (CPC-Ag zero wt %, CPC-Ag zero.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.zero wt %) become carried out. The formation of recent levels become accompanied in situ with the aid of using the Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction approach (EDXRD), permitting one to gain a 3-D map of diffraction patterns, collected as a feature of the scattering parameter and of time. This approach proved to be appropriate to study the real-time tracking of the CPCs hardening system in situ. The EDXRD structural investigations have been complemented with the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) morphological studies, compressive electricity measurements and the Ag+ launch tracking with the aid of using the Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES). The antibacterial in vitro test, the usage of pathogenic Escherichia coli, become carried out to show the inhibitory impact of the Ag-containing cement formulations. Antibacterial properties of silver have been known for centuries. At 1000 BC, silver compounds were used as a balm for wounds and burns. Even today, silver nitrate and sulfadiazine are known as the gold standards for treating localized burns. Since 1800, silver has been used in medicine and dentistry due it is anticariogenic, antibacterial and antirheumatic properties. In 1840, silver compounds were used to reduce caries in deciduous teeth. Then, it was also used for permanent molars, and in disinfecting dental cavities before restoration, and as a desensitizing agent for dentine .
Various compounds of silver have been used for dental purposes such as silver nitrate, as a compound with fluoride, and also with tin .
Gradually, the use of silver in dentistry was set aside, as it caused discoloration of tissues, and resin- based composites containing silver . However, silver has become popular again today and is being used in dental and medical products because of its broad spectrum, low toxicity, and lack of cross-spectrum bacterial resistance. Materials with antibacterial and antibiofilm properties are of increasing interest for both patients and medical staff because of the main advantages compared with traditional/classical materials. In fact, the development of antibacterial and antibiofilm materials is beneficial from industrial to environmental and especially in medical applications. This chapter is highlighting some of the advantages of using the antibacterial/antibiofilm materials as well as the main route for assuring these properties starting from classical materials. Polymers, ceramics, composites, and even metal devices are necessary in medical practice. Chemical and physical surface or bulk modification procedures are tested in order to induce antibacterial/antibiofilm properties. Plasma treatment is largely used in surface modification. But, many times, this treatment also involves chemical modifications due to the high energy or reaction with certain desired reactants or even with traces (usually oxygen from air). Short-term activity is mainly obtained by functionalizing the material surface in a controlled manner. The long-term modification is often obtained by loading these materials with various drugs or active components (active components of commercially available drugs, natural products—essential oils but even nanoparticles of ions). As perspectives, the forthcoming decades will be extremely important in developing and replacing the actual materials and devices with new, multifunctional ones. The relatively wide applications, materials and devices (nature, shapes), preferences, and possibilities will make it impossible to use one modification route for all materials and devices. Chemical functionalization/modification is a flexible, powerful tool, which practically can be used even for the most inert supports. Nowadays, drug eluting and functionalized prosthetic devices are marketed and their accessibility will be further improved.
In this work, 3 cement structures had been investigated: CPC-Ag zero wt % (manipulate sample), CPC-Ag zero.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.zero wt %. The structural modifications taking area at some point of the hardening process of the cements had been accompanied via way of means of the EDXRD technique. The partial conversion of β-TCP segment into the DCPD happened in all 3 investigated cement structures. For Ag-containing cements (CPC-Ag zero.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.zero wt %) a decrease conversion price turned into observed
Published Date: Jun 30, 2021
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